Special Section on Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents

Reliability engineering approach to digital watermark evaluation

[+] Author Affiliations
Hyung Cook Kim

Purdue University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Video and Image Processing Laboratory, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

Edward J. Delp

Purdue University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Video and Image Processing Laboratory, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

J. Electron. Imaging. 15(4), 041107 (December 28, 2006). doi:10.1117/1.2400608
History: Received January 30, 2006; Revised September 05, 2006; Accepted September 06, 2006; Published December 28, 2006
Text Size: A A A

Robust still image watermarks are evaluated in terms of image fidelity and robustness. We extend this framework and apply reliability testing to robust still image watermark evaluation. Reliability is the probability that a watermarking algorithm will correctly detect or decode a watermark for a specified fidelity requirement under a given set of attacks and images. In reliability testing, a system is evaluated in terms of quality, load, capacity, and performance. To measure quality that corresponds to image fidelity, we compensate for attacks to measure the fidelity of attacked watermarked images. We use a conditional mean of pixel values to compensate for valumetric attacks such as gamma correction and histogram equalization. To compensate for geometrical attacks, we use error concealment and perfect motion estimation assumption. We define capacity to be the minimum embedding strength parameter and the maximum data payload that meet a specified error criteria. Load is then defined to be the actual embedding strength and data payload of a watermark. To measure performance, we use bit error rate (BER) and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) of a watermarking algorithm for different attacks and images. We evaluate robust watermarks for various loads, attacks, and images.

© 2006 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Hyung Cook Kim and Edward J. Delp
"Reliability engineering approach to digital watermark evaluation", J. Electron. Imaging. 15(4), 041107 (December 28, 2006). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2400608


Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

PubMed Articles
Advertisement
  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.