Several computational models of the human visual system are available even for use in real-time conditions. However, because of the diversity of targets, applications, fields, and devices, the user should have a minimum knowledge before being able to select a given model or feature. By analyzing the recent literature, one can find that visual saliency is widely used and that huge efforts have been devoted to the development of comprehensive models for image/video, 2D/3D, grayscale/color and even for virtual reality. The main explanation of this attractiveness to such a type of perceptual model is linked, as stated before, to the need to preserve resources (bit-budget in the case of compression for instance) and use them on appropriate parts of the content to have a better impact on our perception. Just-noticeable difference (JND) models have also regained interest with the advent of new applications and content types. One can list more than ten recently proposed JND models dedicated to 3D, for instance. The gain achieved with such models does not need to be demonstrated anymore. Besides the aforementioned models, one can refer to visual masking, contrast sensitivity, binocular fusion, to cite a few of them.