Subsequently, the testing of the MF to detect low-resolution images will be examined. A small image window size is a requirement for detecting forgeries in a median-filtered image or modified JPEG pre- or/and postcompression. An example of a cut-and-paste forgery image is shown in Fig. 7. An unaltered image (window) is cut, and a median-filtered image (house) is pasted onto the cut area (white region) of the unaltered image (those unaltered images come from the BOWS2 database), forming a composite image, which was then JPEG postcompressed using a quality factor of 90, rotated counterclockwise by 5 deg and added salt and pepper noise by 0.05 density. Figures 89–10 show the detection blocks of MF with the MFR AR, the MFF, and the proposed method, respectively. The detected blocks that are median-filtered (the true positives) are marked in red, and the remaining blocks are marked in blue (the false alarms). (The color version of the paper is available online.) In Figs. 89–10, the left column (a, c, e, and g) is examined in a block size, and the right column (b, d, f, and h) is examined in a block size. The first row (a and b) shows the detection results in MF3 versus unaltered images, the second row (c and d) shows the detection results in MF3 + JPG90 versus JPG90 images, the third row (e and f) shows the detection results in MF3 versus unaltered to rotated images, and the last row (g and h) shows the detection results in MF3 versus unaltered to noisy images.