A set of invariant quaternion moments based on an adaptation of the three-dimensional (3-D) spherical harmonic transform (SHT) for describing two-dimensional color shapes is proposed. The use of quaternions to deal with the color part is beneficial in the way the three color components are integrated in a single feature. An adequate mapping from the 3-D SHT to the unit disc allows a fast and accurate computation of the proposed moments. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the obtained moments in terms of color image reconstruction, robustness to geometric and photometric transformations, content-based color shape retrieval, and computation time. For this purpose, two image databases (COIL-100 and ALOI) are used. Results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed moments in dealing with the color information.