Regular Articles

Improved spread transform dither modulation based on robust perceptual just noticeable distortion model

[+] Author Affiliations
Wenbo Wan, Chuan Ge, Di Gao

Shandong University, School of Information Science and Engineering, No. 27 Shandanan Road, Jinan 250100, China

Ju Liu, Jiande Sun

Shandong University, School of Information Science and Engineering, No. 27 Shandanan Road, Jinan 250100, China

Hisense State Key Laboratory of Digital Multimedia Technology, No. 11 Jiangxi Road, Qingdao 266061, China

Xiushan Nie

Shandong University of Finance and Economics, School of Computer Science and Technology, No. 7366 Erhuan Dong Road, Jinan, 250014, China

J. Electron. Imaging. 24(2), 023002 (Mar 05, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.JEI.24.2.023002
History: Received October 30, 2014; Accepted February 11, 2015
Text Size: A A A

Abstract.  In the quantization-based watermarking framework, the perceptual just noticeable distortion (JND) model has been widely used to determine the quantization step size, as it can provide a better tradeoff between fidelity and robustness. However, the calculated JND values can vary due to changes introduced by watermark embedding. As a result, the mismatch problem will lead to watermark extraction errors in the absence of attacks. We present an improved spread transform dither modulation (STDM) watermarking scheme. Performance improvement with respect to the existing algorithm is obtained by a discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based perceptual JND model that is highly compatible with the STDM watermarking algorithm. The proposed scheme not only incorporates various masking effects of human visual perception, but also avoids the mismatch problem by utilizing a new measurement of the pixel intensity and edge strength. In contrast to conventional JND models, the proposed model can be theoretically invariant to the changes in the watermark-embedding processing, therefore, more fit for quantization-based watermarking. Experimental results confirm the improved robustness performance of the JND model in the STDM watermarking framework. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is more robust than the existing JND model-based watermarking algorithms with uniform fidelity. Furthermore, our proposed scheme has a superior performance compared with previously proposed perceptual STDM schemes.

Figures in this Article
© 2015 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Wenbo Wan ; Ju Liu ; Jiande Sun ; Chuan Ge ; Xiushan Nie, et al.
"Improved spread transform dither modulation based on robust perceptual just noticeable distortion model", J. Electron. Imaging. 24(2), 023002 (Mar 05, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JEI.24.2.023002


Tables

Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

PubMed Articles
A perceptually tuned watermarking scheme for color images. IEEE Trans Image Process 2010;19(11):2966-82.
Advertisement
  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.