Regular Articles

Spread spectrum image data hiding in the encrypted discrete cosine transform coefficients

[+] Author Affiliations
Xiaoqiang Zhang

Beihang University, State Key Lab of Software Development Environment, Beijing 100191, China

University of British Columbia, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T1Z4, Canada

Z. Jane Wang

University of British Columbia, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T1Z4, Canada

J. Electron. Imaging. 22(4), 043029 (Dec 16, 2013). doi:10.1117/1.JEI.22.4.043029
History: Received June 4, 2013; Revised August 16, 2013; Accepted September 5, 2013
Text Size: A A A

Abstract.  Digital watermarking and data hiding are important tools for digital rights protection of media data. Spread spectrum (SS)-based watermarking and data-hiding approaches are popular due to their outstanding robustness, but their security might not be sufficient. To improve the security of SS, a SS-based image data-hiding approach is proposed by encrypting the discrete cosine transform coefficients of the host image with the piecewise linear chaotic map, before the operation of watermark embedding. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations and analyses of its robustness and security are carried out. The average bit-error-rate values on 100 real images from the Berkeley segmentation dataset under the JPEG compression, additive Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, and cropping attacks are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can maintain the high robustness of traditional SS schemes and, meanwhile, also improve the security. The proposed approach can extend the key space of traditional SS schemes from 1019 to 1047 and thus can resist brute-force attack and unauthorized detection watermark attack.

Figures in this Article
© 2013 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Xiaoqiang Zhang and Z. Jane Wang
"Spread spectrum image data hiding in the encrypted discrete cosine transform coefficients", J. Electron. Imaging. 22(4), 043029 (Dec 16, 2013). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JEI.22.4.043029


Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

PubMed Articles
Advertisement
  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.