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Image processing for three-dimensional scans generated by time-of-flight range cameras

[+] Author Affiliations
Holger Schöner

Software Competence Center Hagenberg, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria

Frank Bauer

Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Department of Knowledge-based Mathematical Systems, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria

Adrian Dorrington

University of Waikato, Department of Engineering, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand

Bettina Heise

Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Department of Knowledge-based Mathematical Systems, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria

Volkmar Wieser

Software Competence Center Hagenberg, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria

Andrew Payne

University of Waikato, Department of Engineering, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand

Michael J. Cree

University of Waikato, Department of Engineering, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand

Bernhard Moser

Software Competence Center Hagenberg, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria

J. Electron. Imaging. 21(2), 023012 (May 21, 2012). doi:10.1117/1.JEI.21.2.023012
History: Received March 16, 2011; Revised March 16, 2012; Accepted March 28, 2012
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Abstract.  Time-of-flight (TOF) full-field range cameras use a correlative imaging technique to generate three-dimensional measurements of the environment. Though reliable and cheap they have the disadvantage of high measurement noise and errors that limit the practical use of these cameras in industrial applications. We show how some of these limitations can be overcome with standard image processing techniques specially adapted to TOF camera data. Additional information in the multimodal images recorded in this setting, and not available in standard image processing settings, can be used to improve reduction of measurement noise. Three extensions of standard techniques, wavelet thresholding, adaptive smoothing on a clustering based image segmentation, and an extended anisotropic diffusion filtering, make use of this information and are compared on synthetic data and on data acquired from two different off-the-shelf TOF cameras. Of these methods, the adapted anisotropic diffusion technique gives best results, and is implementable to perform in real time using current graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware. Like traditional anisotropic diffusion, it requires some parameter adaptation to the scene characteristics, but allows for low visualization delay and improved visualization of moving objects by avoiding long averaging periods when compared to traditional TOF image denoising.

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© 2012 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Holger Schöner ; Frank Bauer ; Adrian Dorrington ; Bettina Heise ; Volkmar Wieser, et al.
"Image processing for three-dimensional scans generated by time-of-flight range cameras", J. Electron. Imaging. 21(2), 023012 (May 21, 2012). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JEI.21.2.023012


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