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Detection of LSB±1 steganography based on co-occurrence matrix and bit plane clipping

[+] Author Affiliations
Mojtaba Abolghasemi

Amirkabir University of Technology, Electrical Engineering Department, Hafez Avenue, Tehran, Iran

Hassan Aghaeinia

Amirkabir University of Technology, Electrical Engineering Department, Hafez Avenue, Tehran, Iran

Karim Faez

Amirkabir University of Technology, Electrical Engineering Department, Hafez Avenue, Tehran, Iran

Mohammad Ali Mehrabi

Amirkabir University of Technology, Electrical Engineering Department, Hafez Avenue, Tehran, Iran

J. Electron. Imaging. 19(1), 013014 (March 04, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3295709
History: Received June 04, 2009; Revised December 03, 2009; Accepted December 04, 2009; Published March 04, 2010; Online March 04, 2010
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Spatial LSB±1 steganography changes smooth characteristics between adjoining pixels of the raw image. We present a novel steganalysis method for LSB±1 steganography based on feature vectors derived from the co-occurrence matrix in the spatial domain. We investigate how LSB±1 steganography affects the bit planes of an image and show that it changes more least significant bit (LSB) planes of it. The co-occurrence matrix is derived from an image in which some of its most significant bit planes are clipped. By this preprocessing, in addition to reducing the dimensions of the feature vector, the effects of embedding were also preserved. We compute the co-occurrence matrix in different directions and with different dependency and use the elements of the resulting co-occurrence matrix as features. This method is sensitive to the data embedding process. We use a Fisher linear discrimination (FLD) classifier and test our algorithm on different databases and embedding rates. We compare our scheme with the current LSB±1 steganalysis methods. It is shown that the proposed scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in detecting the LSB±1 steganographic method for grayscale images.

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© 2010 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Mojtaba Abolghasemi ; Hassan Aghaeinia ; Karim Faez and Mohammad Ali Mehrabi
"Detection of LSB±1 steganography based on co-occurrence matrix and bit plane clipping", J. Electron. Imaging. 19(1), 013014 (March 04, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3295709


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