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Improved watermark synchronization based on local autocorrelation function

[+] Author Affiliations
Min-Jeong Lee

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

Kyung-Su Kim

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

Tae-Woo Oh

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

Hae-Yeoun Lee

Kumoh National Institute of Technology, School of Computer and Software Engineering, Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk, Korea

Heung-Kyu Lee

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

J. Electron. Imaging. 18(2), 023008 (May 29, 2009). doi:10.1117/1.3134121
History: Received August 07, 2008; Revised March 10, 2009; Accepted April 03, 2009; Published May 29, 2009
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An autocorrelation function (ACF) to synchronize watermarks has been adopted in practical applications because of its robustness against affine transforms. However, ACFs are vulnerable to projective transform, which commonly occurs during the illegal copying of cinema footage due to the angle of the camcorder relative to the screen. The cinema footage that is captured by camcorders both is projected and has undergone digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversion (D-A/A-D conversion). We present a novel watermarking scheme that uses a local autocorrelation function (LACF) that can resist projective transforms as well as affine transforms. A watermark also used for synchronization is designed and additively embedded in the spatial domain. The embedded watermark is extracted in a blind way after recovering from distortions. The LACF scheme with a mathematical model is proposed to synchronize the watermark against distortions. On various video clips, experimental results show that the presented scheme is robust against projective distortions as well as D-A/A-D conversion.

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© 2009 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Min-Jeong Lee ; Kyung-Su Kim ; Tae-Woo Oh ; Hae-Yeoun Lee and Heung-Kyu Lee
"Improved watermark synchronization based on local autocorrelation function", J. Electron. Imaging. 18(2), 023008 (May 29, 2009). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3134121


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