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Analysis of breast tumors in mammograms using the pairwise Rayleigh quotient classifier

[+] Author Affiliations
Tingting Mu

The University of Liverpool, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Brownlow Hill, L69 3GJ, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Asoke K. Nandi

The University of Liverpool, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Brownlow Hill, L69 3GJ, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Rangaraj M. Rangayyan

University of Calgary, Schulich School of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada

J. Electron. Imaging. 16(4), 043004 (November 16, 2007). doi:10.1117/1.2803834
History: Received November 22, 2006; Revised May 14, 2007; Accepted May 21, 2007; Published November 16, 2007
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We propose a pairwise Rayleigh quotient (PRQ) classifier and apply it to discriminate between malignant tumors and benign masses in mammograms. The PRQ classifier employs a Rayleigh quotient based on a set of pairwise constraints, which leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem with low complexity of implementation. Kernel functions are used to incorporate nonlinearity. Studies were conducted with features of 57 breast masses, of which 20 are related to malignant tumors and 37 to benign masses. The linear PRQ classifier provided results comparable to those obtained with Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), support vector machines (SVMs), and convex pairwise SVMs (CPSVMs). The linear PRQ classification performance of the comparatively weak feature sets with edge sharpness and texture features was significantly improved by about 5%, as compared to those obtained by FLDA, SVM, and CPSVM. The nonlinear PRQ classifier with the triangle kernel provided the perfect performance of 1.0 in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, for nearly all feature combinations, but with good robustness limited to the kernel parameter in a certain range. We propose a measure of robustness to evaluate the PRQ classifier.

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© 2007 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Tingting Mu ; Asoke K. Nandi and Rangaraj M. Rangayyan
"Analysis of breast tumors in mammograms using the pairwise Rayleigh quotient classifier", J. Electron. Imaging. 16(4), 043004 (November 16, 2007). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2803834


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