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Real-time restoration of white-light confocal microscope optical sections

[+] Author Affiliations
Madhusudhanan Balasubramanian

Louisiana State University, Department of Computer Science, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

S. Sitharama Iyengar

Louisiana State University, Department of Computer Science, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

Roger W. Beuerman

National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Singapore Eye research Institute, Singapore 119260 and Nanyang Technical University, Division of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Singapore 639798

Juan Reynaud

Devers Eye Institute/DIS, 1225 NE Second Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232

Peter Wolenski

Louisiana State University, Department of Mathematics, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

J. Electron. Imaging. 16(3), 033009 (August 06, 2007). doi:10.1117/1.2768092
History: Received June 13, 2006; Revised March 16, 2007; Accepted March 21, 2007; Published August 06, 2007
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Confocal microscopes (CM) are routinely used for building 3-D images of microscopic structures. Nonideal imaging conditions in a white-light CM introduce additive noise and blur. The optical section images need to be restored prior to quantitative analysis. We present an adaptive noise filtering technique using Karhunen–Loéve expansion (KLE) by the method of snapshots and a ringing metric to quantify the ringing artifacts introduced in the images restored at various iterations of iterative Lucy–Richardson deconvolution algorithm. The KLE provides a set of basis functions that comprise the optimal linear basis for an ensemble of empirical observations. We show that most of the noise in the scene can be removed by reconstructing the images using the KLE basis vector with the largest eigenvalue. The prefiltering scheme presented is faster and does not require prior knowledge about image noise. Optical sections processed using the KLE prefilter can be restored using a simple inverse restoration algorithm; thus, the methodology is suitable for real-time image restoration applications. The KLE image prefilter outperforms the temporal-average prefilter in restoring CM optical sections. The ringing metric developed uses simple binary morphological operations to quantify the ringing artifacts and confirms with the visual observation of ringing artifacts in the restored images.

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© 2007 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Madhusudhanan Balasubramanian ; S. Sitharama Iyengar ; Roger W. Beuerman ; Juan Reynaud and Peter Wolenski
"Real-time restoration of white-light confocal microscope optical sections", J. Electron. Imaging. 16(3), 033009 (August 06, 2007). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2768092


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