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Lapped-orthogonal-transform-based adaptive image watermarking

[+] Author Affiliations
Yuxin Liu

Purdue University,School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

Bin Ni

Purdue University,School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

Xiaojun Feng

Purdue University,School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

Edward J. Delp

Purdue University,School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

J. Electron. Imaging. 15(1), 013009 (March 24, 2006). doi:10.1117/1.2185658
History: Received February 27, 2004; Revised June 09, 2005; Accepted September 06, 2005; Published March 24, 2006
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A robust, invisible watermarking scheme is proposed for digital images, where the watermark is embedded using the block-based lapped orthogonal transform (LOT). The embedding process follows a spread spectrum watermarking approach. In contrast to the use of transforms such as discrete cosine transform, our LOT watermarking scheme allows larger watermark embedding energy while maintaining the same level of subjective invisibility. In particular, the use of LOT reduces block artifacts caused by the insertion of the watermark in a block-by-block manner, hence obtaining a better balance between invisibility and robustness. Moreover, we use a human visual system (HVS) model to adaptively adjust the energy of the watermark during embedding. In our HVS model, each block is categorized into one of four classes (texture, fine-texture, edge, and plain-area) by using a feature known as the texture masking energy. Blocks with edges are also classified according to the edge direction. The block classification is used to adjust the watermark embedding parameters for each block.

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© 2006 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Yuxin Liu ; Bin Ni ; Xiaojun Feng and Edward J. Delp
"Lapped-orthogonal-transform-based adaptive image watermarking", J. Electron. Imaging. 15(1), 013009 (March 24, 2006). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2185658


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