Regular Articles

Robust watermarking scheme based on the JPEG2000 standard

[+] Author Affiliations
Julià Minguillón

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Estudis d’Informàtica i Multimèdia, Av. Tibidabo 39-43, 08035 Barcelona, Spain

Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Estudis d’Informàtica i Multimèdia, Av. Tibidabo 39-43, 08035 Barcelona, Spain

David Megías

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Estudis d’Informàtica i Multimèdia, Av. Tibidabo 39-43, 08035 Barcelona, Spain

J. Electron. Imaging. 14(3), 033015 (August 03, 2005). doi:10.1117/1.1988334
History: Received July 28, 2004; Revised January 03, 2005; Accepted January 14, 2005; Published August 03, 2005; Online August 03, 2005
Text Size: A A A

We perform an empirical evaluation of the lossy compression properties of the JPEG2000 standard for watermarking and fingerprinting purposes. The JPEG2000 standard is used as a basic tool for determining both how and where the embedded watermark should be placed in the image. The original image is slightly modified to generate a similar image (but indistinguishable by the observer), and the mark is embedded in the pixels presenting differences between both images. The reconstruction process uses the original and the modified images to detect the embedded mark in any possible attacked image, so the watermarking scheme is nonblind. Previous experiments show that the properties of the resulting watermarking scheme depend strongly on the transformation stage characteristics of the lossy image compression system. Several parameters related to the JPEG2000 standard are tested, in addition to the compression ratio determined by the desired bit rate: the wavelet transform, block size, and the number of levels of decomposition for each block. These parameters affect not only the capacity but also the robustness of the watermarking scheme, which depends on the number of differing pixels between the original image and the slightly modified one, and the distribution of such differences. For evaluation purposes, we use the Stirmark benchmark and the classical image corpus set for lossy image compression. We compare the impact on system performance of each of the JPEG2000 standard parameters for several kinds of attacks, namely, filtering (including sharpening); JPEG lossy compression; cropping; row and column removal; and a combination of rotation, cropping, and scaling. The false positive rate is also studied. Results show that the proposed watermarking scheme based on the JPEG2000 standard is robust against most of the classical image manipulation operation, and therefore, is suitable for watermarking purposes. Furthermore, the proposed watermarking scheme can be also upgraded to be used as a fingerprinting scheme once the embedded mark is properly coded, due to the use of a collusion scheme.

Figures in this Article
© 2005 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Julià Minguillón ; Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí and David Megías
"Robust watermarking scheme based on the JPEG2000 standard", J. Electron. Imaging. 14(3), 033015 (August 03, 2005). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1988334


Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

Advertisement
  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.