SPECIAL SECTION ON SECURITY AND WATERMARKING OF MULTIMEDIA CONTENTS

Automatic recovery of invisible image watermarks from geometrically distorted images

[+] Author Affiliations
Gordon W. Braudaway, Fred Mintzer

International Business Machines Corporation, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York?10598

J. Electron. Imaging. 9(4), 477-483 (Oct 01, 2000). doi:10.1117/1.1287836
History: Received Feb. 15, 2000; Revised June 1, 2000; Accepted June 1, 2000
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Abstract

One method of attacking an imbedded invisible watermark is to create a derivative image that is geometrically distorted relative to the original. One attack, developed at Cambridge University, is called “StirMark.” 1 Image-distorting methods modify images so subtly that the changes are essentially unnoticeable to a viewer. However, their effect on invisible watermarks can be devastating, rendering them unextractable. In this paper, an automated countermeasure to image-distorting attacks will be described. Employing an unmarked copy of the original image as a reference, the possible distortion in a suspect image is first detected by the method, then measured, and finally reversed, producing a restored image approximately geometrically aligned with the original. Using a robust invisible watermarking method described previously by one of the authors to produce a watermarked image, “StirMark” to distort the watermarked image, and a copy of the original unmarked image for reference, the restoration method is demonstrated to be sufficient by showing successful extraction of the imbedded watermark from a restored image. © 2000 SPIE and IS&T.

© 2000 SPIE and IS&T

Citation

Gordon W. Braudaway and Fred Mintzer
"Automatic recovery of invisible image watermarks from geometrically distorted images", J. Electron. Imaging. 9(4), 477-483 (Oct 01, 2000). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1287836


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